Sunday, April 25, 2010

References Summary

D Li recommends using paired reading to assist ESL students' improvement of English reading skills. And he investigates the effects of paired reading on reading fluency and reading accuracy.

Mokhtari and Shoerey describe an instrument, Surevey of Reading Strategies. They measure ESL students' awareness of reading strategies.

Thursday, April 8, 2010

Swales & Feak: Data commentary

after reading Data Commentary

Through this article, I finally became to know what data commentary is and how it should be written. And I realized every commentary has its rules and proper procedures. So from now on I will try to keep these rules when I should put some tables, graphs and etc. Data commentaries have some elements in the following. First, it’s good to say the location elements and summaries about the data. Second, it needs highlight statements for the writers to have good judgment. Finally, it should have a space of discussions of implications, problems, exceptions, etc. Concluding a data commentary, we had better refer the unexpected results or unsatisfactory data, if possible. And we can predict the possible further researches. And also with regard to graphs, we should be careful of using the words, paragraphs and chronological orders when describing them. I think these principles are very beneficial for graduate students to prepare for their theses. From now on I will see data such as tables, graphs and etc and their commentaries very carefully.

Friday, March 26, 2010

Reading An approach to academic writing(Swales)

After reading An Approach to Academic Writing
Before I was permitted in this graduate school, I had not seriously considered how to write academically and Whom to write for. But after reading this article, I became to know how many varieties I should keep for writing. According to Swales' article, there are many characteristics to consider for academic writing: Audience, Purpose, Organization, Style, Flow, Presentation. The most previous characteristic is to ponder audience. We should consider our audience' expectations and prior knowledge. And then purpose and strategy are connected with audience. Our purpose of writing depends on audience' levels of knowledge. Organization is next stage. One main strategy for academic writing is to organize information by way of problem-solution (Hoey 1983) This pattern includes four parts: Description of a situation, Identification of a problem, Description of a solution, Evaluation of the solution.
I think the next feature is very impressive. That is Style. We should consider many elements in this part. First, when we use verbs, it's a better way to select a single verb. Second, we must choose more academic and difficult words. Third, avoiding contractions is appropriate. Forth, limiting the use of "run on" expressions, such as "and so forth" and "etc." Fifth, we should avoid the use of direct questions. Finally the location of adverbs is within the verb.
When we consider style, we also have to think about a clear connection of our ideas. It's very important for readers to understand our writings. It's called flow.
Finally a correct presentation can give us pleasure. So we should consider some conditions: incorrect homophone, basic grammar errors, and misspelled words are those.
Swales' writing is very beneficial for novice-writers. Thus we should appreciate those ways in writing from now on before writing.
I think his description is basic. But we should keep the rules in detail. That's the reasonable way for academic writing.

Sunday, March 21, 2010

Interesting Topic In TESOL MALL

After entering this graduate school, I have had many assignments and wonderings about my study. What will I learn here? How should I study? In a year and half, how can I be changed? Today reading some references, one idea occured to me abruptly. It's about the differences between the education of private institutes and that of public schools.
Here in Korea there are so many private institutes. Even though public schools have tried to improve their English educational quality and the Korean government have tried to invest too much effort and money, many parents are not satisfied with school educational environment. So they are searching for good institutes. In this circumstance, I wonder why the parents are not satisfied with it. We need to get more detailed materials. This may be one of my thesis' title.
And in TESOL MALL I realized I should know how to assist using a computer. So I wonder how much computer can influence our educational situatons. There might be so many obstacles to use multimedia. But this is a current stream. We cannot avoid it. So I would like to learn how many ways we can adapt to English educaton through computers.
Reading so many related articles and learning how to use a computer are not easy for me. But I am a very curious person. So I come to expect what to learn and how to do in the class.

Reading educational leadership(Simon Hole and Grace Mcentee)

In this article there are two educational reflection ways in order to improve our educational theories and practice. One is 'using Guided Reflection Protocol.' and the other is Critical Incidents Protocol.'
They said "the former is a way to find the meaning within the mundane." It is to reflect alone without other tearchers' help. So private experiences are very important as a teacher. Here Simon and Grace said " Being a teacher means learning to live within some pressure, learning from the decisions i make and learning to make better dicisions. " The latter is a way of reflection as a group two or more because schools are social areas. So tearchers they can choose one main story and exchange many questions and answers to seek the proper solution about the problem in the story. They can help each other and get many ways to solve it.
Through Guideed Reflection Protocol process, we can reach a deep thought to go forward to practice individually. But i think our thoughts in person are very limited. Without other helping ways we can always commit faults. But at that time we can't recognize our faults. Through Critical Incidents Protocol, we can gather many various solutions. It can be very helpful. But whenever we meet some problems, we should meet somewhere. We have to wait for much time to put together those answers.
So i think If we can use these two ways properly, it is very efficient and suitable for the school areas. Here John Dewey said " Every experience affects for better or worse the attitudes which help decide the quality of further experience."(p.37 Experience and Education, 1938) I think that's absolutely right. As a teacher we have had so many varieties of experiences until now. We ought to reflect our experiences for the practice and theory developement all the time.

Sunday, March 14, 2010

About constructivist pedagogy assignment #2

About Constructivist Pedagogy

Name: Lee Jeong A ( 2008E003: Jeong a Lee: Morning class )
Date : 2008.3.20

1. The four issues of Constructivist Pedagogy
in research and practice

(1) It focuses on student learning.
(2) It tries to understand and describe of more and less effective constructive teaching.
(3) It requires deep subject matter knowledge for teachers, especially elementary school teachers.
(4) It tries to check the possibility that the vision of constructivist Pedagogy is ideological and may impose a dominant view of Pedagogy.
(quoted by pg1:3-14)

2. Constructivist Theory

Note : Constructivism is a theory of learning, meaning-making that individuals make their understanding between the acquired knowledge and the ideas and knowledge to come into contact. ( quoted by pg1:30_ 2:2)

* Two forms of constructivism by Philips

1) Social constructivism
(1) Such things as politics, ideologies, values, power, status, religious beliefs and economic self- interest can determine body of knowledge or disciplines.
(2) These bodies of knowledge are not considered to be objective representations of the external world.
(quoted by pg 2)
2) Psychological constructivism

(1) Individual learners actively construct the meaning around the phenomena.
(2) These constructions are very idiosyncratic depending on the learner's background knowledge. (quoted by pg 3: 2-4)

3) The big difference between two theories, is one of focus

1) Social constructivism are interested in how the development of that formal knowledge has been determined within power, economics, social and political forces.
2) Psychological constructivism depends on the ways in which meaning is created within the individual mind. (quoted by pg3: 2nd paragraph)

Note : But most of the work on constructivist Pedagogy takes place within the second approach. (quoted by pg3: 4th paragraph)

* Comment : I think Pedagogy is a synthesis of all areas. Of course social backgrounds of students are very important. It is also important for students to make meaning around them. But the most important I think is to have control-power of teachers in classroom. Under the great teachers are good students.

3. Current interest in the constructivist pedagogy

Many authors compared constructivism with transmission model teachers to explicate differences in the two teaching approaches.

1) Five characteristics of constructivist Pedagogy

(1) This pays attention to the individual and respect for the student background.
(student- centered)
(2) With facilitation of group dialogue, it can lead to the creation and understanding

(3) Through many various means such as direct instruction, reference to text and web site, it can introduce of formal domain knowledge.
(4) It can provide opportunities for students to determine, challenge, change or add to existing beliefs and understandings.

(5) It can develop the students' meta-awareness of their own understandings and learning processes. (quoted by pg 4)

Note : We can understand constructivist pedagogy is the creation of classroom environments, activities, and methods grounded in a constructivist theory of learning. (quoted by pg 5:1st paragraph)

4. Unsolved issues

1) Student Learning
As constructivism as a learning development or meaning-making theory suggests that students also make meaning from activities, we have to try students to develop the ability to think mathematically, historically, literally, scientifically, musically and so on. (quoted by pg 6 middle part)

2) Effective constructive teaching
(1) As the lack of effective constructive teaching is due to the lack of constructivist teaching theory, we should know the basis of theory.
(quoted by pg 7 : down part)
(2) As a teacher we don't need to know whole knowledge. we can allow the students to figure the things out for themselves. (quoted by pg 8 middle part)
(3) It must be based on acquisition or participation. (quoted by pg8: down part)
(4) It is developed within subject matter areas.

3) Teachers' Subject -Matter Knowledge

(1) It is necessary for teachers to get the depth of subject matter knowledge for students.

* for the interpretation of how students are understanding the material,
* for developing activities that support students,
* for exploring concepts, hypotheses and beliefs,
* for guiding a discussion (quoted by pg9 :middle part)

(2) it is impossible for elementary school teachers to get all depth of knowledge of subject matter.
(3) Teachers help students reconceptualize their knowledge in broader social, cultural, and ideological worlds. (quoted by pg 10: middle part)

** Comment : Of course it is very hard to get all depth of knowledge of subject matters. But I think researching is teachers' responsibility and holy duty. So we have to try to know it thoroughly every day even though elementary teachers. Teachers are researchers.

4) Cultural differences
Note : Psychological constructivist Approach may be possible within a dominant culture
There are two schools.
One is Afrocentric school and the other is University area school.
(1) The features of Afrocentric school
* teacher-centered instruction
* the norms of the school focused on the development of the community
* students have to help form and improve that community
(quoted by pg11 : down part)

(2) The features of university area school
* student centered classroom
* teachers think of students' creativity and honesty
* community exists to help the individual students
(qouted by pg 12 : top part)
Note : Therefore we can follow the constructivist instructional approach through a dominant culture.

** Comment : I think cultural and social backgrounds are the most important thing. Even though we have strong emotion to get something from outworld, we are restricted because of family wealth, ideology and politic power. And before we adapt this kind of theory to the classroom we should notice the backgrounds of the students.

5. Conclusion
The most critical area of work in constructivist pedagogy is determining ways of relating teacher actions in a constructivist classroom to student learning.
Constructivism is not perfect. And it is not norms. We have to accept this as one of various theories. (quoted by pg 13: down )
Teaching theory can be developed under the allowing many various circumstances of strategies. (quoted by pg 15: top )

Saturday, March 13, 2010

Thought of Plagiarism Assignment#1

Previously i didn't know if plagiarism is too bad. After reading this writing, i got to know many writers over the world have been considering the problem serious and important. As an amateur writer under the graduate school we should think this is very important. Culturally in Korean society the pro-writers has had no a big voice about plagiarism until now. But i realized that many other universities and organizations have argued this matter through this writing.
According to Kyoto Yamada's writing, plagiarism is a kind of stealing(Kolich,1983:143) and cheating(Murphy,1990:899). And so we should consider authorship important. We also should think about how to avoid copying others' ideas and words.
In this writing there are two main methods to solve it. One way is to use paraphrasing and the other is to lead the students to the inferential thought processes. But as a novice writer, those ways are absolutely difficult to approach. I also read the wonderful samples here. That sample was so fluent a writing. In my thought in order to write in that way we should know a lot a various knowledges about one theme or story.
To get an inferential thinking habit, we ought to be used to anological study habit. In my thought, this semester is one step to reach that goal. In spite of all these difficulties, we should not permit forgiveness of plagiarism to ourselves because plagiarism is the act of stealing of other writers' creativeness and endeavors. I think a habitual creative thought and anological reading are one way to avoid that.

What prevents ESL/EFL writers from avoiding plagiarism?: Analyses of 10 North-American college websites (Kyoko Yamada)
Assignment #1